Gas Turbines: Internal Flow Systems Modeling Pdf
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A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous flow internal combustion engine. The main parts common to all gas turbine engines form the power-producing part (known as the gas generator or core) and are, in the direction of flow:
The basic operation of the gas turbine is a Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid: atmospheric air flows through the compressor that brings it to higher pressure; energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so that the combustion generates a high-temperature flow; this high-temperature pressurized gas enters a turbine, producing a shaft work output in the process, used to drive the compressor; the unused energy comes out in the exhaust gases that can be repurposed for external work, such as directly producing thrust in a turbojet engine, or rotating a second, independent turbine (known as a power turbine) that can be connected to a fan, propeller, or electrical generator. The purpose of the gas turbine determines the design so that the most desirable split of energy between the thrust and the shaft work is achieved. The fourth step of the Brayton cycle (cooling of the working fluid) is omitted, as gas turbines are open systems that do not reuse the same air.
Most gas turbines are internal combustion engines but it is also possible to manufacture an external combustion gas turbine which is, effectively, a turbine version of a hot air engine.Those systems are usually indicated as EFGT (Externally Fired Gas Turbine) or IFGT (Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine).
Problems and solutions presented in this chapter are typically found gas turbine secondary air flow systems, which are important for cooling and sealing of various critical components subjected to high temperatures. They include finding changes in pressure and temperature in isentropic compressible free and forced vortex flows and a nonisentropic generalized vortex; finding static pressure variation in a radially outward flow in rotating constant- and variable-area ducts; analyzing impingement air cooling of a cylindrical surface with a rotary arm with three jets; calculating axial thrust of a centrifugal air compressor rotor; calculating heat transfer in a rotating duct of arbitrary cross section; calculating windage temperature rise in a rotor-stator cavity; analyzing a two-tooth labyrinth two-tooth labyrinth seal under various operating conditions; and calculating pressure and temperature changes in rotating radial pipes carrying compressor bleed air flow for turbine cooling. For a deeper understanding of various concepts used in these problems and their solutions, readers are encouraged to review these concepts in Gas Turbines: Internal Flow Systems Modeling (Cambridge Aerospace Series #44, 2019) by Bijay K. Sultanian.
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