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DETONATE consists of two component packages for evaluation of de novo transcriptome assemblies, RSEM-EVAL and REF-EVAL. RSEM-EVAL is a reference-free evaluation method based on a novel probabilistic model that depends only on an assembly and the RNA-Seq reads used for its construction. REF-EVAL is a toolkit of reference-based measures.
Detonate 1.2 could be downloaded from the developer's website when we last checked. We cannot confirm if there is a free download of this software available. The most popular versions of the Detonate are 1.2 and 1.0.
We cannot guarantee that the program is safe to download as it will be downloaded from the developer's website. Before launching the program, check it with any free antivirus software. The most frequent installer filenames for the software are: detonate1.2lite.exe, detonate-demo-v1.exe, detonate-full-v1.exe and detonate1.2full.exe etc.
Detonators. Articles consisting of a small metal or plastic tube containing explosives such as lead azide, PETN, or combinations of explosives. They are designed to start a detonation train. They may be constructed to detonate instantaneously, or may contain a delay element. They may contain no more than 10 g of total explosives weight, excluding ignition and delay charges, per unit. The term includes: detonators for ammunition; detonators for blasting, both electric and non-electric; and detonating relays without flexible detonating cord.
Explosive, primary. Explosive substance which is manufactured with a view to producing a practical effect by explosion, is very sensitive to heat, impact, or friction, and even in very small quantities, detonates. The major primary explosives are mercury fulminate, lead azide, and lead styphnate.
(4) When the packaging includes water that could freeze during transportation, a sufficient amount of anti-freeze, such as denatured ethyl alcohol, must be added to the water to prevent freezing. If the anti-freeze creates a fire hazard, it may not be used. When a percentage of water in the substance is specified, the combined weight of water and anti-freeze may be substituted.
(b) Limited quantities of Cartridges, small arms, and cartridges power devices. (1)(i) Cartridges, small arms, and Cartridges power device (used to project fastening devices), that have been classed as Division 1.4S explosive may be offered for transportation and transported as limited quantities when packaged in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section. For transportation by aircraft, the package must conform to the applicable requirements of § 173.27 of this part and, effective July 1, 2011, Cartridge, power devices must be successfully tested under the UN Test Series 6(d) criteria for reclassification as limited quantity material. Effective January 1, 2012, Cartridge, power devices must be successfully tested under the UN Test Series 6(d) criteria for reclassification as limited quantity material for transportation by highway, rail or vessel. Packages containing such articles must be marked as prescribed in § 172.315. Packages containing such articles are not subject to the shipping paper requirements of subpart C of part 172 of this subchapter unless the material meets the definition of a hazardous substance, hazardous waste, marine pollutant, or is offered for transportation and transported by aircraft or vessel. Additionally, packages containing these articles are excepted from the requirements of subparts E (Labeling) and F (Placarding) of part 172 of this subchapter.
Explosive materials may be categorized by the speed at which they expand. Materials that detonate (the front of the chemical reaction moves faster through the material than the speed of sound) are said to be "high explosives" and materials that deflagrate are said to be "low explosives". Explosives may also be categorized by their sensitivity. Sensitive materials that can be initiated by a relatively small amount of heat or pressure are primary explosives and materials that are relatively insensitive are secondary or tertiary explosives.
An explosion is a type of spontaneous chemical reaction that, once initiated, is driven by both a large exothermic change (great release of heat) and a large positive entropy change (great quantities of gases are released) in going from reactants to products, thereby constituting a thermodynamically favorable process in addition to one that propagates very rapidly. Thus, explosives are substances that contain a large amount of energy stored in chemical bonds. The energetic stability of the gaseous products and hence their generation comes from the formation of strongly bonded species like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and (di)nitrogen, which contain strong double and triple bonds having bond strengths of nearly 1 MJ/mole. Consequently, most commercial explosives are organic compounds containing -NO2, -ONO2 and -NHNO2 groups that, when detonated, release gases like the aforementioned (e.g., nitroglycerin, TNT, HMX, PETN, nitrocellulose).
An explosive is classified as a low or high explosive according to its rate of combustion: low explosives burn rapidly (or deflagrate), while high explosives detonate. While these definitions are distinct, the problem of precisely measuring rapid decomposition makes practical classification of explosives difficult.
Traditional explosives mechanics is based on the shock-sensitive rapid oxidation of carbon and hydrogen to carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water in the form of steam. Nitrates typically provide the required oxygen to burn the carbon and hydrogen fuel. High explosives tend to have the oxygen, carbon and hydrogen contained in one organic molecule, and less sensitive explosives like ANFO are combinations of fuel (carbon and hydrogen fuel oil) and ammonium nitrate. A sensitizer such as powdered aluminum may be added to an explosive to increase the energy of the detonation. Once detonated, the nitrogen portion of the explosive formulation emerges as nitrogen gas and toxic nitric oxides.
To determine the suitability of an explosive substance for a particular use, its physical properties must first be known. The usefulness of an explosive can only be appreciated when the properties and the factors affecting them are fully understood. Some of the more important characteristics are listed below:
Sensitivity refers to the ease with which an explosive can be ignited or detonated, i.e., the amount and intensity of shock, friction, or heat that is required. When the term sensitivity is used, care must be taken to clarify what kind of sensitivity is under discussion. The relative sensitivity of a given explosive to impact may vary greatly from its sensitivity to friction or heat. Some of the test methods used to determine sensitivity relate to:
Sensitivity is an important consideration in selecting an explosive for a particular purpose. The explosive in an armor-piercing projectile must be relatively insensitive, or the shock of impact would cause it to detonate before it penetrated to the point desired. The explosive lenses around nuclear charges are also designed to be highly insensitive, to minimize the risk of accidental detonation.
"Green explosives" seek to reduce environment and health impacts. An example of such is the lead-free primary explosive copper(I) 5-nitrotetrazolate, an alternative to lead azide. One variety of a green explosive is CDP explosives, whose synthesis does not involve any toxic ingredients, consumes carbon dioxide while detonating and does not release any nitric oxides into the atmosphere when used.
A primary explosive is an explosive that is extremely sensitive to stimuli such as impact, friction, heat, static electricity, or electromagnetic radiation. Some primary explosives are also known as contact explosives. A relatively small amount of energy is required for initiation. As a very general rule, primary explosives are considered to be those compounds that are more sensitive than PETN. As a practical measure, primary explosives are sufficiently sensitive that they can be reliably initiated with a blow from a hammer; however, PETN can also usually be initiated in this manner, so this is only a very broad guideline. Additionally, several compounds, such as nitrogen triiodide, are so sensitive that they cannot even be handled without detonating. Nitrogen triiodide is so sensitive that it can be reliably detonated by exposure to alpha radiation; it is the only explosive for which this is true.
Tertiary explosives, also called blasting agents, are so insensitive to shock that they cannot be reliably detonated by practical quantities of primary explosive, and instead require an intermediate explosive booster of secondary explosive. These are often used for safety and the typically lower costs of material and handling. The largest consumers are large-scale mining and construction operations.
The earliest PALs were little more than locks introduced into the control and firing systems of a nuclear weapon, that would inhibit either the detonation, or the removal of safety features of the weapon. More recent innovations have included encrypted firing parameters, which must be decrypted to properly detonate the warhead, plus anti-tamper systems which intentionally mis-detonate the weapon, destroying it without giving rise to a nuclear explosion.
Permissive action links were developed in the United States in a gradual process from the first use of atomic weapons to the early 1960s. In 1953 the United States Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense signed the Missiles and Rockets Agreement, which paved the way for the development and implementation of PALs. Certain national laboratories, under the auspices of the AEC, would develop and produce nuclear weapons, while the responsibility for the use and deployment remained with the military. The laboratories were also free to conduct their own research in the field of arms control and security. The thinking behind this was that if the government would ever be interested in such a security device, the research and development of prototypes would already be well advanced. At the beginning of the 1960s, the desire for the usage of such a system grew for both political and technological reasons. 2b1af7f3a8